CWR > Volume 7(2); 2021 > Article
Research Paper
Published online: Sept 1, 2021

Ethics Guidelines for Artificial Intelligence: Comparing the European and Chinese Approaches

Marina Timoteo & Barbara Verri & Yukai Wang
University of Bologna
Department of Legal Studies-Alma Mater Università di Bologna-via Zamboni 27/29, 40126 Bologna (BO) Italy.
Corresponding Author:

ⓒ Copyright YIJUN Institute of International Law. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


As Europe is a weaker actor mainly due to her digital underdevelopment, the EU is settling on the regulatory side of digital sovereignty. The article is to comparatively analyze the European and Chinese AI ethical guidelines considering the strategic and normative scope of the guidelines as well as their implications on the legal frameworks of AI both in Europe and China. In this field, the most important initiative in the EU was carried on by the High-Level Expert Group on Artificial Intelligence, which, in 2019, released the “Ethics Guidelines for Trustworthy AI,” a catalogue of principles as well as operative measures to achieve Trustworthy AI. In China, instead, the most important initiative was the “Beijing AI Principles” released in 2019 by the Beijing Academy of Artificial Intelligence, and the “Principles to Develop Responsible AI for the New Generation Artificial Intelligence: Developing Responsible Artificial Intelligence” released in 2019 by the New Generation AI Governance Expert Committee.

Keywords : Artificial Intelligence, Ethical Principles, EU-China Dialogue, New Technologies Governance

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