CWR > Volume 7(2); 2021 > Article
Research Paper
Published online: Sept 1, 2021

To Be or Not to Be? The Implementation of the MPIA from the Perspective of the WTO Dispute Settlement

Jiaxiang Hu & Dapo Wang
Shanghai Jiaotong University KoGuan Law School
Shanghai Jiaotong University, No. 1954, Huashan Road, Xuhui District, Shanghai 200030 P.R. China.
Corresponding Author:

ⓒ Copyright YIJUN Institute of International Law. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The EU, China, and other WTO members recently released their concluded MPIA with its Annexes I and II as a temporary arrangement to deal with the appeals of panel rulings before the Appellate Body resumes its operation. The WTO dispute settlement mechanism is a complete unit with unique features and inherent logic. Although this arrangement maintains the two-tier process with arbitration to replace the appellate review, there is a fundamental difference between them, which is embodied not only in the dispute settlement process but also in the implementation of the rulings. The challenges that the WTO dispute settlement mechanism encounters are not limited to those procedural issues, but they are also connected with the substantive rules, with which the procedural issues should be jointly resolved. This is the correct way to deal with the current challenges and to reform the multilateral trade regime.

Keywords : MPIA, Arbitration, Appellate Review, Dispute Settlement, WTO

View the Full Text